Apata Joseph Tosin, Ogunbiyi Oluwagbenga John, Babalola Olubunmi Olusegun
Today, in this era, the entire world is facing the severe challenge of providing permanent solutions to cancer. However, currently available anti-cancer drugs are associated with many expensive side effects and are not safe to control and treat cancer clinically. Therefore, due to its effectiveness and safety, plant saponins have received more attention in combating the proliferation of human cancer cells. This study aimed to study the protective and cytotoxic potential of saponin extracted from Clerodendrum volubile leaves. Crude saponin is extracted from powdered plant material. The cytotoxic potential of crude saponin on nauplii of brine shrimp was measured at doses of 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/ml, and diclofenac was used as a reference drug. The median lethal dose (LD50) for acute toxicity studies was confirmed using standard procedures in white albino rats at concentrations of 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900, and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The crude saponins extracted from C. voluble leaves showed significant cytotoxicity to brine shrimp nauplii in a dose-dependent manner at all tested doses from 6 hours to 18 hours, with LC50 â€‹â€‹ranging from 743.35 ± 1.42 µg / ml, 414.027 ± 0.012 µg/ml and 103.913 ± 0.019 µg/ml. At 24 h, compared to standard drugs (46.91 ± 0.018 µg / ml), crude saponins showed excellent cytotoxic potential, with an LC50 value of 16.073 ± 0.015 µg / ml. In the acute toxicity test with rats, since there was no death, the median lethal dose is estimated to be above 5000 mg/kg of body weight. The saponins extracted from C. volubileleaves are non-toxic and can be used safely for the management and treatment of cancer.
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