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International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science

Vol. 5, Issue 2, Part A (2023)

A comprehensive review of diabetes: Understanding, types, and management strategies


Alisha Ansari, Dt. Ritika Sharma, Dr. Amita Sharma, Wasim Akhtar, Bushra Husain, Saif Alam, Dr. Juli Tansariya and Dr. Atul Pratap Singh


The diabetes is a complex and chronic condition with significant implications for global health and healthcare costs. It encompasses various types, counting diabetes type I diabetes type II, gestational diabetes, and other more uncommon structures. The pathophysiology involves insulin production and secretion abnormalities, insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction, and dysregulation of glucagon and incretin hormones. Several risk factors contribute to the improvement of diabetes, including hereditary inclination, family history, lifestyle factors such as obesity, sedentary behaviour, and unhealthy diet, as well as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. Strategies for prevention and delay of diabetes onset should focus on lifestyle modifications, including healthy eating habits, regular physical activity, weight management, and targeted interventions for high-risk individuals. Diagnosis and screening of diabetes rely on specific criteria and classification systems. Early detection and intervention are crucial for preventing complications and optimizing outcomes. Once diagnosed, diabetes management involves a multidimensional approach. Lifestyle modifications, including diet, exercise, and weight management, are fundamental and should be individualized. Pharmacological interventions, such as oral antidiabetic agents and injectable therapies, along with insulin therapy and personalized medicine approaches, play a critical role in achieving glycemic control. Diabetes is related to a scope of difficulties and comorbidities, including microvascular entanglements (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular intricacies (cardiovascular infection, stroke, and fringe blood vessel illness). Diabetic foot complications and their impact on mental health and quality of life should also be addressed in comprehensive diabetes management. Patient education and self-management are essential components of diabetes care. Empowering individuals with knowledge, skills, and support enables them to actively participate in their care and make informed decisions. Self-monitoring of blood glucose, adherence to self-care practices, and access to psychological support and behavioral interventions are vital for successful diabetes management. Monitoring and follow-up involve establishing glycemic control targets, regular HbA1c monitoring, utilization of continuous glucose monitoring and other technological advancements, and scheduled medical check-ups. Preventive care, including screenings for complications and vaccinations, is crucial for optimal outcomes. Looking forward, to the fate of diabetes the executives hold guarantees with progressions in precision medicine, individualized treatment approaches, AI, digital health technologies, and regenerative medicine. These innovations have the potential to transform diabetes care by providing personalized interventions, improving self-management, and targeting the underlying mechanisms of the disease. In summary, a holistic and patient-centred approach is paramount in diabetes management. It involves addressing the physical, psychological, and social aspects of the disease. Collaboration between healthcare providers, individuals with diabetes, and multidisciplinary teams is key to achieving optimal outcomes and improving the overall quality of life for individuals living with diabetes. By integrating the latest research findings and embracing innovative strategies, we can continue to advance the field of diabetes management and work towards better prevention, treatment, and ultimately a cure for diabetes.

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How to cite this article:
Alisha Ansari, Dt. Ritika Sharma, Dr. Amita Sharma, Wasim Akhtar, Bushra Husain, Saif Alam, Dr. Juli Tansariya and Dr. Atul Pratap Singh. A comprehensive review of diabetes: Understanding, types, and management strategies. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2023;5(2):01-08. DOI: 10.33545/26647222.2023.v5.i2a.34